HIV is sexually transmitted through unprotected anal (penis in anus) or vaginal (penis in vagina) sex. There is also an extremely small chance of catching HIV during receptive oral sex (Sucking a person’s penis).
Unprotected means sex without condoms or Pre Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). People with HIV who are on effective treatment cannot pass the virus to others (undetectable).
The risk is higher to the person who is being penetrated in all cases. Things which increase the risk are the presence of semen, blood. Longer or more traumatic sex increase the chance of HIV increase the risk as do multiple sexual partners.
People with HIV are particularly infectious in the first few months after they catch the virus (and are often unaware that they have the infection)
- Condomless receptive anal sex (being penetrated anally)
- Sharing injection equipment (needles etc)
- Condomless insertive anal sex (Your penis in their anus)
- Condomless receptive vaginal sex (Their penis in your vagina)
- Condomless insertive vaginal sex (Your penis in their vagina)
Extremely low risk
- Condomless receptive oral sex (Sucking their penis)
- Other types of sex are considered too low risk for HIV transmission. It is not transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, kissing, sharing household equipment or spaces (e.g. Cutlery & toilets)